Biblical Archaeology is the scientific investigation and recovery of artifacts that remained from past cultures that can give insights on the periods and descriptions made in the Bible, from the Old and New Testament, Cosmogony and Judeo Christian religion. The Middle East is considered the Holy Land, where most of the actions from the Bible took place. This new branch emerged almost 200 years ago, and since has changed the ideas about the past. It does not only study observable events, such as remainings from a certain culture, but also religious texts, customs, traditions and rites. Demythification is the research that starts from a myth and with the help of archaeologists events of places are confirmed to have existed. Such examples are the poems of Homer or the mythical city of Troy.
As the time span of the biblical events is 2000 BC and 100 AD, the materials recovered need to be dated with radiocarbon techniques. Many autors, such as William F. Albright, G. Ernest Wright and Yigael Yadin strengthened the belief in the biblical stories, with their studies. The purpose of biblical archaeology is not to prove that the stories in the Bible are authentic, but to discover the history, cultures, movements and identity of civilizations described in this book. Cities, governments, battles, people are the data studies. The studies are mainly conducted in the Holy Land, but also in the regions around them, described in the Bible: Levant (Israel, Palestine and Jordan), Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria, Tanakh, Asia Minor, Macedonia, Rome and Greece.
The most important findings are the ruins of the Kiryit monastery in Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found. They were discovered by Bedouins in 1947, which was the start point for excavations that led to 800 other documents containing prayers or legal texts written in Greek, Aramaic and Hebrew.